Wednesday, 3 July 2019

Quantum Computer Explained | What is Quantum Computing?

Written by Ayush Raj

Today, Computers have become an essential part of our life. From Researches and Medical implementations to exploration of space and technical advancements, nothing is possible without computers. In the last few decades, we have not only minimized the size of computers but also have increased its computational power significantly. 

But even after so many improvisations, our computers are yet not perfect in many ways. They take much time in solving complex mathematical equations. The security systems & confidential data can also be easily compromised by targeting the vulnerabilities present in our computer systems.

A "Quantum  Computer" at IBM
       So to tackle these issues, we need a computer which will be more powerful and fast in comparison to our modern day’s computer. To achieve this, a new edge technology is being tested to make computers more powerful. It’s called "Quantum Computing". In this blog, we are going to learn about "Quantum Computer".

Quantum Computer Vs Classical Computer:


To understand Quantum Computing, First it’s important to understand the working of a classical computer. A classical computer has a processor which uses transistors to calculate or compute the result of a given input. A transistor can be in two states: On and off state. In scientific terms, these states are represented as “0” and “1”.These are called "Bits". Collectively, it is called as a "Binary system". Programmers create many complex programs like MS Office by just using these Binary forms of inputs. Any complex Program is written by defining the conditions of if-this-then-that. 

Quantum Computing:


Quantum Computing uses “Qubits” as its basic unit of data. A Qubit is different from bits. Quantum bits” or simply saying “Qubits” differ from regular bits by the ability to operate in both “1” and “0” states simultaneously. It’s called a superposition. Superposition is one of the key principles of quantum physics.

To explain it briefly, imagine tossing a coin which is either one of the two possible outcomes, a head or a tail. A ‘Classical computer’ works in the same manner: either “1” or “0” for each bit.
On the contrary, imagine the same coin tossed in the air before falling, and you want to measure its outcome.
At this stage, the outcome is said to be head, tail, or both at the same time. This is how qubit functions work. It is similar to a coin in the air. The qubit will have two states until you measure it. Once you implement a measurement to the qubit, it will directly get one of the two possibilities either a “0” or a “1”.
Possible outcomes of a "Quantum computer"
Possible outcomes of a "Classical Computer"
This is how a quantum computer works. A quantum computer uses the principle of “Quantum Entanglement” and “Superposition”. While a classical computer will be calculating in if-this-then-that, a quantum computer would give the result. It is because of a “Quantum Computer” computes both the possibilities at once while a classical computer does the same job one by one. This makes a Quantum computer many times faster than a classical computer.
Applications of Quantum Computers:
-        More Secure Finance: “Quantum uncertainty could be used to create private keys for encrypting messages sent from one location to another so that hackers could not secretly copy the key perfectly because of quantum uncertainty”, Says Prof. Sohini Ghose.  
   They would have to break the laws of Quantum Physics to hack the key. In a classical computer, the data exists in the form of bits. So it is easier to extract the key-codes of the encrypted data. The data in a quantum computer are in the form of qubits. So it can be in any random state which will make it impossible to extract the actual key.
-        Medical Applications:  It can be used to discover new medicines and materials. While developing a drug, The most difficult part is to understand the complexities of molecules at the quantum level. But a Quantum computer can untangle the complexity of molecular and chemical interaction leading to the discovery of new medicines and materials.
"Supercomputer" at IBM

-        Artificial Intelligence: "Quantum computers and AI also share another trait: exponential growth” writes Tristan Greene for The Next Web. “Processors for quantum devices are measured in qubits, with today’s most advanced ones coming in at around 50 qubits. At this size, they’re equivalent to a supercomputer".

“Every time I add a quantum bit to a quantum computer, I double the computational power. If I could have 300 qubits, that would be more powerful than all the computers in the world connected together.” says Prof. Michelle Simmons, Professor of Quantum Physics in the Faculty of Science at the University of New South Wales.

Conclusion:

Quantum Computers are definitely going to be the computers of the future. Every year, Lots of data are produced by us on earth that are stored in the form of clouds, hard disks, pen drives etc..With the increasing amount of data, It is getting difficult to process such large amount of data on the processors based on transistors. The quantum computers are capable of handling and processing a large amount of data which are very helpful even in day to day life. From its medical applications to weather forecasting, Quantum computers come with an ocean of opportunities. It can be used to protect the frauds in banking systems. There are also promising quantum encryption methods being developed using the one-way nature of quantum entanglement.
With such inventions, there are also some problems which our existing systems can face in the starting phase of implications of Quantum Computers. Since Quantum computers are very powerful and fast, it is a cakewalk for it to hack the security systems existing in the world today. Also, Due to its operation at the quantum level, these computers produce lots of noise while working. So the chances of getting errors are high. These computers are also not very user-friendly and are difficult to operate by a non-technical person.
A quantum powered computer is a completely new technology.  Hence, even after these limitations, there is a lot more which is unexplored which is exciting.
Latest News :
1.               'Forbidden' lightwave tool could lead to 'crazy-fast' quantum computers
-Researchers working to overcome one of the biggest bottleneck developments for future quantum computers have achieved something

2.             IBM brings its Quantum computer program to 16 African universities

       -IBM launched its Quantum computer program in Africa today, announcing a partnership with South Africa's Wits University that will extend to 15


      Source: Tech Crunch


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2 comments:

  1. 👍👍 beautifully explained

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  2. Your website is hosted on blogger .com right???

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